Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica; its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%. Because of its amorphous character, it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike the other crystalline forms of silica, which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl, and basalt.

Color Colorless, White, Yellow, Red, Orange, Green, Brown, Black, Blue
Mohs scale hardness 5.5 - 6.5
Specific gravity 1.98 - 2.25
Refractive index 1.440 - 1.460